Our programs are backed by over 35 years of research and studies.

Published Research, Gibson Institute.

Peer Reviewed Articles

Moore, A.L., & Miller, T. (2018).

Reliability and validity of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based test battery for assessing cognition across the lifespan. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 11, 25-35. doi:10.2147/PRBM.S152781

This study evaluated the validity and reliability of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based battery of tests measuring short-term memory, long-term memory, processing speed, logic and reasoning, visual processing, as well as auditory processing and Word Attack skills.  The sample for the study included 2,737 participants ranging in age from 5 to 85. Results indicated strong sources of evidence of validity and reliability for the test, including test-retest reliability coefficients ranging from .69-.91, split-half reliability coefficients ranging from .87 to .91, and concurrent validity coefficients ranging from .53 to .93.  The Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills -2 is a reliable and valid tool for assessing cognition in the general population across the lifespan. Link to article: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5813948/ Link to video abstract: https://youtu.be/qFMois2UyCY

Download this research booklet for more information through clinical trials and studies to review the success of our training programs:

Hill, O.W., Zewelanji, S., & Faison, O. (2016).


The Efficacy of the LearningRx Cognitive Training Program: Modality and Transfer Effects. Journal of Experimental Education: Learning, Instruction, and Cognition, 84(3), 600-620. doi: 10.1080/00220973.2015.1065218.

This article describes two trials testing the efficacy of the LearningRx one-on-one cognitive training program and its computer-based version (Brainskills) in laboratory and school settings. Study 1 tested Brainskills in a laboratory setting with 322 middle school students. Paired t-tests revealed significant gains on all cognitive measures and math performance after 3 weeks of training. Study 2, a randomized control study, included 225 high school students randomly assigned to one of three conditions: LearningRx, Brainskills, or study hall (control) in a school setting for a 15-week training period. Univariate ANCOVAs revealed significantly higher scores for the treatment groups compared with controls on working memory, logic and reasoning, and three of four math attitude measures. Funded by $3M National Science Foundation (NSF) grant. Link to abstract: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220973.2015.1065218


Jedlicka, E. (2017).


LearningRx cognitive training for children and adolescents ages 5-18: Effects on academic skills, behavior, and cognition. Frontiers in Education, 2(62). doi: 10.3389/feduc.2017.00062

This study with 178 students ages 5-18 investigated whether ThinkRx and ReadRx clinician-delivered cognitive training programs reduced academic difficulties and oppositional behavior for school-age children with learning struggles compared to a control group.  Results indicated there were statistically significant differences overall between the intervention groups and the control group on all measures of academic difficulties. Both intervention groups saw a reduction in academic difficulty ratings following training while the control group saw an increase in academic difficulty during a comparable time interval.  Both intervention groups achieved statistically significant changes on objective cognitive test measures as well.

Link to article: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/feduc.2017.00062/full


Moore, A.L., Carpenter, D.M., Ledbetter, C., & Miller, T.M. (2018).


Clinician-delivered cognitive training for children with attention problems: Transfer effects on cognitive and behavior from the ThinkRx randomized controlled trial. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 14, 1671-1683. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S165418

In a randomized controlled study, we examined the effects of a one-on-one cognitive training program on memory, visual and auditory processing, processing speed, reasoning, attention, overall IQ score, and behavior for students ages 8-14 with ADHD. Results included greater pretest to post-test change scores on all variables for the treatment group versus the control group with statistically significant differences noted in working memory, long-term memory, logic and reasoning, auditory processing, and IQ score. Qualitative outcomes included far transfer to cognition and behavior as reported by participants, parents, and clinicians.

Read the article     Link to video abstract: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tso9xhKRkao



Brain Training improves cognitive skills

Ledbetter, C., & Moore, A. (2018).


Neuroimaging outcomes of a cognitive rehabilitation training program. Journal of Neuroimaging, 28(2), 225-233. doi: 10.1111/jon.12507

To investigate if aberrant brain connectivity and changes in brain connectivity (a neuroimaging marker of neuroplasticity), were evident prior to and after completion of a robust cognitive training program, a series of case studies were carried out in subjects with varying degrees of traumatic brain injuries (n = 5) and cognitive impairment (n = 5). MR exams were acquired on all subjects prior to and upon completion of the ThinkRx cognitive training program. In addition to MR exams, all subjects completed pre-post neuropsychological testing (WJ-IV) and condition-specific rating scales. For all cases, neuropsychological testing and qualitative outcomes measures increased, supporting that the robustness of the training program held for each imaged case study. Normalization of DMN connectivity, including decreased hyperconnectivity and reoccurrence of anticorrelated activity, was evident in the most severe TBI case. At the group level, significant training-induced changes in neural connectivity were identified.  Read the article. Or read the abstract on pages 230-231: Neuroimaging Outcomes for TBI and MCI_J of Neuroimaging

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For more information on ongoing research, technical reports and doctoral dissertations and peer-reviewed conference presentations please visit: https://www.gibsonresearchinstitute.org/research-areas/research-summaries/